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    SAT写作:经典人物素材之洛克菲勒

    2018年03月26日17:00 来源:小站整理
    参与(0) 阅读(303)
    摘要:本文为大家带来一篇关于洛克菲勒的SAT写作人物素材,文章介绍了洛克菲勒的平生经历和成就。洛克菲勒大家可能有点陌生,但是一定听说过“石油大亨”这个称呼,希望能够帮助到大家。

    五星复式选号 dfc.bdzq38.com 下面我们就一起来看看洛克菲勒SAT写作人物素材吧,宝宝们要灵活运用到自己的SAT作文里哦。

    SAT写作:经典人物素材之洛克菲勒图1

    约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒(John Davison Rockefeller)(1839年7月8日–1937年5月23日),出生于美国纽约州里奇福德,美国慈善家、资本家,1870年创立标准石油,是十九世纪第一个亿万富翁。

    ral High School and at 16 he became a clerk in a commission house. Determined to work for himself, Rockefeller saved all the money he could and in 1850 went into business with a young Englishman, Maurice Clark. The company, Clark & Rockefeller Produce and Commission, sold farm implements, fertilizers and household goods.

    16岁时,他成为了一所委员会的职员。他决心为自己工作,他把所有能赚到的钱都存了起来。1850年,他和一个年轻的英国人莫里斯·克拉克合伙经商。公司,克拉克和洛克菲勒生产和委员会,出售农具,肥料和家用产品。

    Rockefeller's company was fairly successful but did not bring him the wealth he desired. In 1862 Rockefeller heard that Samuel Andrews had developed a better and cheaper way of refining crude petroleum. Rockefeller sold his original business and invested it in a new company he set up with Andrews called Standard Oil.

    洛克菲勒的公司相当成功,但没有给他带来他想要的财富。1862年,洛克菲勒听说塞缪尔·安德鲁斯发明了一种更好、更便宜的原油提炼方法。洛克菲勒卖掉了他原来的生意,并将其投资于他与安德鲁斯建立的新公司——标准石油公司。

    One of the business problems that Rockefeller encountered was the high cost of transporting his oil to his Cleveland refineries (40 cents a barrel) and the refined oil to New York ($2 a barrel).

    洛克菲勒遇到的一个商业问题是,把他的石油运到克利夫兰精炼厂(每桶40美分)和精炼石油到纽约(每桶2美元)。

    Rockefeller negotiated an exclusive deal with the railway company where he guaranteed sixty car-loads a day. In return the transport prices were reduced to 35 cents and $1.30. The cost of his oil was reduced and his sales increased dramatically.

    洛克菲勒与铁路公司达成了一项独家协议,他保证每天有60辆汽车载货。作为回报,运输价格下降到35美分和1.30美元。他的石油消耗减少了,他的销售额急剧增加。

    Within a year four of his thirty competitors were out of business. Eventually Standard Oil monopolized oil refining in Cleveland. Rockefeller now bought out Samuel Andrews for a million dollars and turned his attentions to controlling the oil industry throughout the United States. His competitors were given the choice of being swallowed up by Standard Oil or being crushed. By 1890 Rockefeller's had swollen into an immense monopoly which could fix its own prices and terms of business because it had no competitors. In 1896 Rockefeller was worth about $200 million.

    不到一年,他的30个竞争者中就有4个破产了。最终,标准石油垄断了克利夫兰的炼油业务。洛克菲勒现在以100万美元买下了塞缪尔·安德鲁斯,并将注意力转向控制整个美国的石油工业。他的竞争对手们被允许选择被标准石油吞掉或者被碾碎。到1890年,洛克菲勒已经膨胀成一个巨大的垄断,它可以修正自己的价格和商业条款,因为它没有竞争者。在1896年,洛克菲勒价值约2亿美元。

    In November 1902, Ira Tarbell, one of the leading muckraking journalists in the United States, began a series of articles in McClure's Magazine on how Rockefeller had achieved a monopoly in refining, transporting and marketing oil. This material was eventually published as a book, History of the Standard Oil Company (1904). Rockefeller responded to these attacks by describing Tarbell as "Miss Tarbarrel".

    1902年11月,美国著名的揭发丑闻的记者艾拉·塔贝尔在《麦克卢尔》杂志上发表了一系列文章,讲述了洛克菲勒在炼油、运输和销售石油方面的垄断。这种材料最终以一本书的形式出版,是标准石油公司(1904年)的历史。洛克菲勒对这些攻击的反应是将塔贝尔描述为“Tarbarrel小姐”。

    President Theodore Roosevelt, who had been elected on a program that included reducing the power of large corporations, attempted to use the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to deal with Rockefeller's monopoly of the oil industry. This was largely ineffective and it was not until 1911 that the Supreme Court dissolved the Standard Oil monopoly.

    西奥多·罗斯福(Theodore Roosevelt)总统曾在一项计划中当选,其中包括减少大公司的权力,他试图利用《谢尔曼反托拉斯法》来处理洛克菲勒对石油工业的垄断。这在很大程度上是无效的,直到1911年,最高法院废除了标准石油垄断。

    The various press campaigns against Rockefeller had turned him into one of America's most hated men. A devout Baptist, Rockefeller began giving his money away. He set up the Rockefeller Foundation to "promote the well-being of mankind". Over the next few years Rockefeller gave over $500 million in aid of medical research, universities and Baptist churches. He was also a major supplier of funds to organizations such as the Anti-Saloon League that was involved in the campaign for prohibition. By the time that he died died on 23rd My, 1937, John Davidson Rockefeller had become a popular national figure.

    反对洛克菲勒的各种媒体活动把他变成了美国最讨厌的人之一。一个虔诚的施洗者,洛克菲勒开始捐钱。他创立了洛克菲勒基金会,以“促进人类福祉”。在接下来的几年里,洛克菲勒捐赠了5亿多美元用于医学研究、大学和浸礼会教堂。他同时也是反沙龙联盟等组织的主要资金提供者,这些组织参与了禁毒运动。在他死于1937年23日的时候,约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒已经成为一个受欢迎的国家人物。

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